Monday, November 24, 2014

Prayer of the Week



'Mid All the Traffic of the Ways

'Mid all the traffic of the ways,
turmoils without, within,
Make in my heart a quiet place,
and come and dwell within;
A little shrine of quietness,
all sacred to thy-self,
Where thou shalt all my soul possess,
and I may find myself;
A little shelter from life's stress,
where I may lay me prone,
And bare my soul in loneliness,
and know as I am known;
A little place of mystic grace,
of ego and sin swept bare,
Where I may look upon they face,
and talk with thee in prayer.



See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Intimate Soliloquies
The Source is Within You
The Soul Within the Soul
Quote of the Day – November 16, 2011
Michael Morwood on the Divine Presence
The Harvest Within the Heart
There Must Be Balance
May Balance and Harmony Be Your Aim
Richard J. Foster on Prayer
Karl Rahner on the Need for Prayer
Prayer and the Experience of God in an Ever-Unfolding Universe
The Most Sacred and Simple Mystery of All

Image: Subject and photographer unknown.


Saturday, November 22, 2014

The Model of Leadership Offered by Jesus: "More Like the Gardener Than the Owner of the Garden"

.


I've spent a good part of today shifting and sorting through papers and documents dating back to the mid-1990s. In the process I discovered a piece I wrote for the Dignity Twin Cities newsletter in 1997. It was written in response to then-Archbishop Harry Flynn's remark that "the pastor is the head honcho." It's interesting to read the response I penned in light of recent revelations that detail Flynn's – along with his predecessor's and successor's – scandalous lack of leadership in response to the decades-long clergy sex abuse crisis in the Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis. Perhaps if an alternative model of leadership other than that of "head honcho" had been promoted, say, a model that was open to a range of perspectives and which allowed for accountability and transparency, then the archdiocese might not be in the mess it's in today. Drawing on the insights of Donna Schaper, my article from 1997 offers an alternative model, one which although reflective of the gospel message of Jesus, is still yet to be fully embraced by the church's clerical leadership.

____________________________


Archbishop's "Head Honcho" Model of Leadership
at Odds with Gospel Message

By Michael J. Bayly

Dignity Twin Cities Newsletter
March-April 1997


At one point during the question and answer session of the February 22 Archdiocesan Assembly Day, Archbishop Harry J. Flynn commented on the role of the pastor. "The pastor is the head honcho," he said, "I would be less than honest with you if I let you go home today thinking anything else."

The archbishop's comments were in response to concerns related to the archdiocese's commitment to the servant model of leadership. "Canon law explicitly states that pastors have the final say in all parish matters and disputes, and Catholics must respect such authority," the archbishop said. "It would be wrong to think that, in a parish, the pastor doesn't have the last word. He does."

The archbishop's comments and in particular his choice of vocabulary, say much about one model of leadership operative in the church. Yet there are other models, a fact which makes this issue worthy of theological analysis and reflection. Undeniably there is a need for leadership at the parish level. Yet must this leadership be personified by individuals whose model of leadership revolves upon having "the last word"? There is an element of fear and mistrust inherent in advocating and insisting on such a model; an element that is totally alien to the trusting and compassionate model of leadership embodied by Jesus.

In one of her Lenten reflections, author Donna Schaper writes on the leadership of Jesus She notes that Mary Magdalene's confusing of Jesus with the gardener on Easter Sunday morning indicates "the radical nature of the risen Christ: he is more like a friend, more like the gardener, more like a woman." Continues Schaper:

[Jesus] is not big but little, not strong but weak, not above us but one of us. We will be raised from the dead when we understand that Jesus is accurately confused with the gardener. He is more like the gardener than he is like the owner of the garden.


Schaper goes on to apply this example of "gospel democracy," and the "friendship model" of leadership it facilitates, to ministry. She notes, for example, that:

We minister in a world that is ideologically hostile to the gospel, that word from God in which Jesus says to all the disciples, not just the ordained ones: "I have called you friends." Here Jesus is illuminating us to a radically new relationship between people and God . . . It is like a garden we all work in together, not a garden where one is employed and the other the employer.


This "democratic understanding" of the resurrection, Schaper contends, is ironic as it places "even more responsibility on the individual and the autonomous while basing itself fully in the grace of the common." Given Archbishop Fylnn's recent statements, one could contend that the hierarchical church has a tendency to view with suspicion and fear both this autonomy and grace, and to demand in their place the installation of "head honcho"-type figures.

We as church, however, do not require "head honchos" – individuals more concerned with the question Who's in charge here? than questions such as What are the responsibilities of a leader in this particular situation, this particular parish? or What and where are the checks and balances for the model of leadership active in this parish? Such questions are the hallmark of authentic leadership – a mode of being that acknowledges and celebrates the diversity of the Christian church and understands that true leadership cannot be monopolized.

Perhaps for those present at the Archdiocesan Assembly Day event the archbishop's citing of "official" church teaching was an adequate response. Yet for many gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) Catholics well acquainted with the fallibility of so-called "official" teachings, the archbishop's response raises a plethora of questions and concerns. We and others know that a "because our tradition says" response reflects a model of church (and thus revelation) that has a strong tendency to ignore (even condemn) specific experiences of the sacred in human life. In so doing, tradition is placed before truth – a situation untenable for followers of Jesus.

Accordingly, the church should abhor the term "head honcho" and the sexist and militaristic elitism it implies. Likewise, the ecclessiastical model that such a term readily springs from needs to be transformed into one that more truly reflects the reality that it is the spirit of the Risen Christ which is the one true pastor of the church; the reality that this spirit speaks through the life experiences of all people regardless of their position within (or outside) the male-designed and dominated structure we call church hierarchy – a structure that by its homogenous founding and maintenance cannot adequately represent or speak definitively for the richly diverse reality of the church as understood as the people of God, the Body of Christ.

Ultimately we must all take to heart the gospel call to be a priestly people. Our pastors, male and female, should exemplify this call in a distinct though non-elitist way. The exact nature of their vocation is certainly not what the official church advocates as articulated by Archbishop Flynn. Instead we would all do well to listen to the spirit active in the lives of the poor and disenfranchised – GLBT people included – so as to ascertain a clearer understanding of the role of the pastor. What is needed throughout the church is a compassionate willingness to truly hear – not just to merely listen and then fall back on church doctrines. What is needed is a trusting and vulnerable openness to the voice of the spirit present in the life experiences of others – a willingness, in other words, to take to heart Mary Pellauer's observation that "If there's anything worth calling theology, it is listening to people's stories, listening to them and cherishing them."

In short, we are all called to be continually making leaps of faith – not because our position or rank demands it, but because our call to be followers of Jesus demands it. Self-authenticated action is the hallmark of true leadership, regardless of whether or not such action is framed within positional and/or functional roles. And in taking such action, it is the example of the humble shepherd and the Easter-morning gardener that we are called to emulate.


See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Genuine Authority
Thoughts on Authority and Fidelity
Gospel Leadership
Remembering Oscar Romero
Bishop Gumbleton: A Priesthood Set Apart and Above Others is Not the Way of Jesus
Francis: The Servant Pope
Nicole Sotelo: "Jesus Was Not Focused on Priesthood"
Bishop Gumbleton: It Isn’t the Church You’re Being Asked to Say Yes To . . . It’s Jesus
A Uniquely Liberated Man
Answer to a Troubled Liberal Catholic
Tony Flannery in Minneapolis
Pan’s Labyrinth: Critiquing the Cult of Unquestioning Obedience
My Response to Archbishop Flynn
For the Record

Related Off-site Link:
Betrayed by Silence: How Three Archbishops Hid the Truth – Madeleine Baran (Minnesota Public Radio News, July 14, 2014).

Image: Artist unknown.


Friday, November 21, 2014

Something to Think About . . .



"Gender, Gospel, and Global Justice," the third international conference of Women's Ordination Worldwide, will take place in Philadelphia, September 18-20, 2015. To register, click here.


Related Off-site Links:
We Have No Shortage of Vocations. What We Have is a Shortage of Vision – Christine Schenk (National Catholic Reporter, November 20, 2014).
Pope Francis and Christian Conservatives Team Up to Promote Patriarchy – Patricia Miller (Religion Dispatches, November 20, 2014).
Cardinal O'Malley: If I Started a Church, I'd Love to Have Women Priests – Teresa M. Hanafin (Crux, November 16, 2014).
End Marginalization in the Catholic Church – Roy Bourgeois (The Washington Post via The Progressive Catholic Voice, September 17, 2013).
St. Mary Magdalene: How the Apostle to the Apostles Subverts Patriarchy – Meghan Clark (Millennial, July 22, 2013).
Ministry, Not Maleness, is the Theological Starting Point for the Priest – James Moudry (The Progressive Catholic Voice, February 18, 2009).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Sister Teresa Forcades on Queer Theology
No Patriarchal Hierarchy, No Rigid Conformity
Thoughts on Ordination, Intellectual Dishonesty, and the Holy Spirit of which the Prophet Joel Speaks
Fr. Roy Bourgeois: "We Need Women Priests in Our Church For It to Be Healthy and Complete"
Quote of the Day – May 4, 2014
Angela Bonavoglia on the Church's "Continued Demonization of Women"
Roger Haight on the Church We Need
Clearing Away the Debris
“We Are All the Rock” – An interview with Roman Catholic Womanpriest Judith McKloskey


Thursday, November 20, 2014

Quote of the Day

How did [the] collapse [of the National Organization for Marriage] occur so quickly? I have three theories. The first is that casual donors grew weary of NOM’s execrably hateful campaigns and craven refusal to face public censure. In 2013, the group’s anti-gay rhetoric sounded barbaric and, at a fundamental level, simply impolite. Even if you didn’t like gay people, you probably didn’t want to associate with such a rabid crowd.

My second, related theory is NOM’s donors are increasingly terrified of being unmasked. For years, the group flew under the radar, and donors could give anonymously. But since the Prop 8 debacle, the indefatigable Fred Karger and his merry band of campaign finance lawyers have been fighting in court, successfully, to force NOM to disclose its donor lists. As the Brendan Eich controversy illustrates, having your name linked with an anti-gay cause can irreparably tarnish your public image. For anti-gay Americans without the backbone to weather harsh criticism, a NOM donation simply isn’t worth the risk.

My third theory—and probably the most likely one—is that NOM’s former donor base has simply lost interest. The battle is over. They know it, and they’re moving on. Gay marriage is here to stay. . . . [A]nyone not totally blinded by bigotry can see pretty clearly that NOM is waging a war against the inevitable.

– Mark Joseph Stern


See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Exposing NOM's "Shameful" Behavior in Minnesota . . . and By Extension the Shameful Behavior of the Roman Catholic Clerical Leadership
A Message for NOM (and the Catholic Hierarchy)
Misplaced Priorities: Knights of Columbus Donate Big to NOM
NOM's Minnesota Battle Plan
MN Sen. John Marty Responds to NOM's Gay Marriage Attack Ad
Quote of the Day – April 8, 2011
Marriage Equality: Simple Answers to NOM's Complicated Lies
At UST, a Rousing and Very Catholic Show of Support for Marriage Equality

Related Off-site Links:
How the National Organization for Marriage Doomed Itself to Collapse – Mark Joseph Stern (Slate, June 6, 2014).
NOM, In Secret Partnership with Catholic Archbishop, Other Elites, Forms New Group – David Badash (The New Civil Rights Movement, June 18, 2014).


Wednesday, November 19, 2014

The Source is Within You


Everything you see has its roots in the unseen world.
The forms may change, yet the essence remains the same.
Every wonderful sight will vanish, every sweet word will fade,
but do not be disheartened,
the source they come from is eternal, growing,
branching out, giving new life and new joy.
Why do you weep?
The source is within you,
and this whole world is springing up from it.



See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Michael Morwood on the Divine Presence (Part III)
The Sufi Way
Quote of the Day – November 16, 2011
Doris Lessing on the Sufi Way
The Soul Within the Soul
Intimate Soliloquies
Clarity, Hope and Courage
Sufism: A Call to Awaken
In the Garden of Spirituality – Hazrat Inayat Khan
In the Garden of Spirituality – Doris Lessing
In the Garden of Spirituality – Kabir Helminski
The Soul of My Love
"Joined at the Heart": Robert Thompson on Christianity and Sufism
Rumi and Shams: A Love of Another Kind
As the Last Walls Dissolve . . . Everything is Possible
The Most Sacred and Simple Mystery of All

Image: Subject and photographer unknown.


Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Remembering Olga Nikolaevna and Her Sisters

November 3 was the 119th anniversary of the birth of Olga Nikolaevna Romanova, eldest daughter of the last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, and his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna.

I'm sure the tragic fate of Olga is known to most people. After the February Revolution of 1917 and the tsar's subsequent abdication, the Romanov family were detained in Russia. In July 1918 the entire family – Nicholas, Alexandra, their four daughters Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, and son Alexei – were brutally murdered in Yekaterinburg by the Bolsheviks of the Ural Regional Soviet. The Bolsheviks had come to power the previous October.

One of the things that draws me to the Romanovs' story is how through their responses of fortitude and love during the months of imprisonment leading up to their murder, they came to perceive more clearly the strengthening and transforming presence of God. This resulted decades later in their canonization as passion bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church.

As I mentioned in a previous post, I've been fascinated by the story of the Romanovs since high school, when I saw Franklin J. Schaffner's film Nicholas and Alexandra on Australian TV. Since then I've read numerous books on the Romanov family, the latest being Helen Rappaport's The Romanov Sisters, published earlier this year.





The Romanov Sisters is subtitled "The Lost Lives of the Daughters of Nicholas and Alexandra," implying that previously unknown or "lost" information about the young women has been unearthed. In reality, like the Romanov books by Robert K. Massie, Greg King, Carolly Erickson, and Peter Kurth, Rappaport's book relies heavily on the memoirs of a number of members of the Russian imperial court who had close contact with the Romanovs and who survived the maelstrom of the Russian Revolution so as to share their first-hand recollections. These people include the tsaritsa's close friends Anna Vyrubova and Lili Dehn; Pierre Gilliard, the French language tutor to the Romanov children; court official Count Paul Benckendorff, and the tsaritsa's lady-in-waiting Baroness Sophia Buxhoeveden. True, many of these accounts are highly subjective; they are memoirs, after all. What many of the more recent books about the Romanovs provide is balance and objectivity. Yet in terms of observations of the Romanov children, the memoirs mentioned above are the first and, in many ways, the last word. The gift of a good writer like Helen Rappaport is to weave the different observations and stories from these often forgotten and/or out-of-print memoirs into a single compelling narrative that resonates and appeals to contemporary readers. I'm happy to report that Rappaport accomplishes this task.

Right: Grand Duchesses Olga and Tatiana with a young wounded soldier and an unidentified doctor.


What I most appreciate about The Romanov Sisters are its chapters documenting the two eldest sisters' work as nurses, or "sisters of mercy," during the First World War. Olga and Tatiana were joined in this important and often difficult work by their mother. In time, the work proved too taxing for Olga, who unlike her more focused and practical sister Tatiana, found it increasingly difficult to cope with the trauma of some of the operations she witnessed. By 1916 Olga was taking on a reduced workload, mainly taking temperatures, writing prescriptions and machining bed linen. About the 20-year-old Olga at this time Rappaport writes:

A French journalist who had been granted the rare privilege of meeting Alexandra and the girls at their hospital remarked in 1916 that there was "something of the serenity of the mystic about Olga Nikolaevna." It was a trait that perhaps more than anything defined her Russianness and one that became more pronounced as the war went on. Olga seemed more and more lost in her own private thoughts about the kind of life, and love, that she longed for. One day at the hospital, she had confided to [her friend] Valentina her personal "dreams of happiness": "To get married, live always in the countryside winter and summer, always mix with good people, and no officialdom whatsoever."


You know, every time I start to read (or re-read) a book about the Romanovs I find myself hoping against hope that it will end differently; that somehow the family will escape Russia and be spared the brutal death that awaits them in the cellar of the Bolsheviks' "House of Special Purpose" in Yekaterinburg. One cannot rewrite history, of course, and so there was no marriage or home in the country or life without officialdom for Olga . . . or indeed any of her siblings.

Still, without in any way glamorizing or condoning the repressive autocratic system over which her parents ruled, I want to acknowledge and honor Olga Nikolaevna, her sisters, and the noble and good work that she, Tatiana, and their mother did as sisters of mercy. I do this by sharing (with added images and links) the following excerpts from The Romanov Sisters by Helen Rappaport.

_________________________________


When Russia went to war in the summer of 1914, it was faced with a desperate shortage of nurses. With massive losses of almost 70,000 killed or wounded in the first five days of fighting, the Russian government predicted that at least 10,000 nurses would be needed. Stirred by patriotic duty, legions of the fashionable and aristocratic ladies of St. Petersburg – or rather Petrograd, as the city was quickly renamed – as well as the wives and daughters of government officials, and professional women such as teachers and academics, rushed to do medical training and embrace the war effort. By September, with the need for nurses increasingly acute, the Russian Red Cross had reduced the usual year-long training to two months. Many women did not make the grade and with it the right to be called sestry miloserdiya – sisters of mercy – as nurses were termed in Russia.

From the day war broke out the tsaritsa was determined that she and her two eldest daughters should play their part; in early September they began their Red Cross training, taking on the self-effacing titles of Sister Romanova, numbers 1, 2 and 3. Although Maria and Anastasia were too young to train they also were to play an active role, as hospital visitors. No one represented the female war effort in Russia more emotively than did the tsaritsa and her daughters through the two and a half long and dispiriting years of war that preceded the revolution of 1917. Everywhere – in newspapers, magazines and shop fronts – one prevailing, iconic image dominated – of the three imperial sisters of mercy soberly dressed in their Red Cross uniforms.

. . . During their training . . . Olga and Tatiana came under the watchful care of Valentina Chebotareva, the daughter of a military doctor, who had been a nurse during the Russo-Japanese War [of 1905]. "How distant they were at first," she recalled of the tsaritsa and her daughters' first days. "We kissed their hand, exchanged greetings . . . and that's as far as it went." But Alexandra soon told the staff that they were not to pay them any special attention and things quickly changed. During their training the three women were to observe [procedures] in the operating theatre and then graduate on to assisting during operations, but their primary duty in the first days was to learn how to dress wounds. The days were particularly long for Tatiana, as she was still completing her education and often had an early morning lesson. Immediately afterwards, and before they started work, the tsaritsa and the girls would stop to pray before the miracle-working icon of the Mother of God at the little Znamenie Church . . . before arriving at [the hospital] at around 10 a.m. to change into their uniforms and begin work.


Above: Tatiana (center) assisting in a medical procedure.


Right: Olga performing her duties as a Sister of Mercy.


Every morning Olga and Tatiana were tasked with changing the dressings of three or four patients each (though this increased as the war went on and the numbers of wounded went up) as well as undertaking the many menial tasks required of them – rolling bandages, preparing swabs, boiling the silk thread for stitching, and machining bed linen. At one o'clock they would return home for lunch and in the afternoon if the weather was fine they would sometimes go out for a brief walk, a bike ride, or a drive with their mother, but most often they returned to the hospital to spend time with the wounded, chatting, playing board games or pin-pong with them and in the summer months croquet in the garden with those who could walk. Often they simply sat knitting or sewing items for refugees and war orphans while the soldiers chatted to them; sometimes they went off and sneaked a cigarette in their rest room. Always, inevitably, the cameras would be taken out at every opportunity and photographs taken of themselves with their wounded officers and friends. Some of these were later reproduced as postcards sold to raise funds for war relief. Other photographs the girls carefully pasted into albums and shared with the wounded later.

. . . In the evenings some of the men gathered round the piano in the common room and sang – which Olga and Tatiana particularly enjoyed – but the best days were festivals or holidays, when they would be joined by Maria and Anastasia, and sometime even Alexey. On evenings when they went back home earlier the girls would often end up telephoning the hospital for one last chat with their favorites.



Above: The Romanov siblings in 1916.
From left, Olga, Alexei, Anastasia, Maria, and Tatiana.


The Romanov sisters and their mother were not spared any of the shock of their first confrontation with the suffering of the wounded and the terrible damage done to their bodies by bombs, sabres and bullets. Joined by [Alexandra's close friend] Anna Vyrubova in their training, they were thrown in at the deep end, dealing with men who arrived "dirty, bloodstained and suffering," as Anna recalled. "Our hands scrubbed in antiseptic solutions we began the work of washing, cleaning, and bandaging maimed bodies, mangled faces, blinded eyes, all the indescribable mutilations of what is called civilized warfare." Sometimes Anastasia and Maria were allowed to come and watch them dressing the wounds, and from August 16 the older girls began observing operations, at first civilian ones for appendixes and hernias, and the lancing of swellings. But soon they were watching bullets being taken out and on September 18 a trepanning for removal of shrapnel; five days later they witnessed their first leg amputation. Once qualified they would be assisting – Alexandra usually handing the surgical instruments to [the surgeon] and taking away amputated limbs, the girls threading surgical needles and passing cotton-wool swabs. On November 25 they saw their first wounded man die on the operating table; Alexandra told Nicholas that their "girlies" had been very brave.

Left: Tatiana and her mother assist in a medical operation.


. . . With Nicholas away for much of the time at Stavka – army HQ located at a railway junction near Baranovichi (in today's Belorussia) – Alexandra sent him regular updates on their daughters' progress. On September 20 she told him what a comfort it was "to see the girls working alone & that they will be known more and learn to be useful." They seemed to adapt quickly to the new demands made on them, and, as [their French language tutor] Pierre Gilliard observed, "with their usual natural simplicity and good humor . . . accepted the increasing austerity of life at Court." Gilliard was especially impressed with their thoughtful attitude to their work and the fact that they had no problem covering their beautiful hair in the nunlike nurse's wimple and spending most of their time in uniform. They weren't playing at being nurses – which from time to time Gilliard observed in other aristocratic ladies – but were true sisters of mercy.



Above: Tatiana and Olga working in a hospital ward.



Above: Maria and Anastasia visiting wounded soldiers.


Right: Tatiana with Vladimir Kiknadze, a 2nd lieutenant in the 3rd Guards Rifles Regiment.


. . . Precise and even bossy at times, Tatiana could, for some, seem too serious and – unlike Olga – lacking in spontaneity. But she was already ready to help others and her ability to apply herself in tandem with her altruistic personality made her admirably suited for nursing work. Whenever [the haemophilic] Alexey had been ill she had helped nurse him and followed the doctors' instructions with regard to medicines, as well as sitting with him. She was also unquestioningly tolerate of the demands of her mother; she "knew how to surround her with unwearying attentions and she never gave way to her own capricious impulses," as Gilliard recalled, which was something that Olga was increasingly prey to. Indeed, in everything she did Tatiana Nikolaevna would soon prove that she had perseverance of the kind her more emotionally volatile older sister lacked. Many of the nurses and doctors who observed her – as well as the patients themselves – later spoke of her as being born to nurse.

Left: The tsaritsa and her daughters photographed in 1913.


The outbreak of war so soon after the celebrations of the [Romanov dynasty's] Tercentenary had inevitably brought a complete turn-around in the popular perception of the Romanov sisters as lofty princesses. With their mother calling a wartime moratorium on the purchase of any new clothes for the family, official photographs of the svelte young women in court dress were replaced by images of the older sisters in uniform and their younger siblings in rather plain, ordinary clothes that belied their imperial status. Alexandra felt that the sight of herself and her daughters in uniform helped to bridge the gap between them and the population at large in time of war. Some saw this as a terrible miscalculation: the vast majority of ordinary Russians, especially the peasantry, still looked upon the imperial family as almost divine beings and expected their public image to project that. As Countess Kleinmikhel observed, "When a soldier saw his Empress dressed in a nurse's uniform, just like any other nurse, he was disappointed. Looking at the Tsarina, whom he had pictured as a princess in a fairy tale, he thought: 'And that is a Tsarina? But there is no difference between us.'"


Right: Empress Alexandra with wounded soldiers.


Similar expressions of distaste circulated among the society ladies of Petrograd who noted with a sneer how "common" the grand duchesses' clothes were, "which even a provincial girl would not dare to wear." They disliked this demystification of imperial women – and worse, their association with unclean wounds, mutilation and men's bodies. They were horrified to learn that the empress even cut patients' fingernails for them. Alexandra's neglect of protocol – her acting as a common nurse – was seen as a "beau geste," "a cheap method of seeking popularity." Even ordinary soldiers were disappointed to see the tsaritsa and her daughters performing the same duties as other nurses or sitting on the beds of the wounded, rather than maintaining their exalted difference. "The intimacy which sprang up between the Empress, her young daughters and the wounded officers destroyed their prestige," said Countess Kleinmikhel, "for it has been truly said: 'Il n'y pas de grand homme pour son valet de chambre' ['No man is a hero to his own valet"']."

Be that as it may, many wounded soldiers came to be grateful for the care they received from Alexandra and her daughters during the war. In August 1914 Ivan Stepanov, a nineteen-year-old wounded soldier of the Semenovsk Regiment, arrived at the annexe at Tsarskoe Selo with his dressings unchanged for over a week. Conscious of his dirty appearance he felt discomforted at the prospect of being helped by the nurses who surrounded him in the treatment room – one of them, a tall gracious sister who smiled kindly as she bent over him, and opposite her two younger nurses who watched with interest as his filthy bandages were unwrapped. They seemed familiar, where had he seen these faces? Then suddenly he realized. "Really, was it them . . . the empress and her two daughters?" The tsaritsa seemed a different woman – smiling, younger-looking than her years. During his time in the hospital Stepanov witnessed many such instances of her spontaneous warmth and kindness, and that of her daughters.

– Helen Rappaport
Excerpted from chapter 14, "Sisters of Mercy," of
The Romanov Sisters (St. Martin's Press, 2014)



Above: Alexandra, Tatiana and Olga – Sisters of Mercy.



Above: Grand Duchess Olga with her mother, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna,
and younger sister, Grand Duchess Anastasia.



Related Off-site Link:
Four Sisters: A Review of The Romanov Sisters – Lara Feigel (The Guardian, March 30, 2014).

Recommended Books:
The Diary of Olga Romanov: Royal Witness to the Russian Revolution – Helen Azar (Westholme Publishing, 2013).
Princesses on the Wards: Royal Women in Nursing Through Wars and Revolutions – Coryne Hall (The History Press, 2014).
Russia's Last Romanovs: In Their Own Words – Helen Azar (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013).
The Family Romanov: Murder, Rebellion, and the Fall of Imperial Russia – Candace Fleming (Schwartz & Wade, 2014).
The Last Days of the Romanovs: Tragedy at Ekaterinburg – Helen Rappaport (St. Martin's Griffin, 2010).
Nicholas and Alexandra – Robert K. Massie (Random House reprint edition, 2000).
Thirteen Years at the Russian Court: A Personal Record of the Last Years and Death of Tsar Nicholas II and His Family – Pierre Gilliard (Forgotten Books reprint edition, 2012).
The Real Tsaritsa – Lili Dehn (HardPress Publishing reprint edition, 2013).

See also the previous Wild Reed post:
Remembering the Romanovs


Monday, November 17, 2014

Doris Lessing on the Sufi Way

A year ago today acclaimed author Doris Lessing died at the age of 94.

I remember and celebrate Doris Lessing today by sharing excerpts from "In the World, Not of It," one of her many writings on the Sufi Way. It's an essay I find particularly helpful, and one that was first published in the 1974 book A Small Personal Voice.


That East must ever be East and West must be West is not a belief which is subscribed to by Sufis, who claim that Sufism, in its reality, not necessarily under the name, is continuously in operation in every culture. Sometimes invisible, it is at times offered as openly as goods in a supermarket. When this happens, it is is expected by them that there will be hostility from . . . authoritarian bodies. During well over 1,000 years of connected literary and psychological tradition, embracing Spain, North Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East, they have almost invariably clashed with narrow thinkers. . . . Some past patterns are unfamiliar to us; others can still be instructive, for in one form or another they repeat themselves.

Hallaj was dismembered in Baghdad [in 922 CE] for blasphemy. . . . Suhrawardi was killed in 1191, the charge including "atheism, heresy, and believing in ancient philosophers." Ibn El Arabi of Spain was hauled before an inquisition of scholars in the twelfth century, for immodesty in pretending that love poetry could be spiritual, when it was pornographic. Sarmad was executed in India in 1563 for exposing his body; he was alleged to be a Jew or of Jewish origin. Jalaluddin Rumi was accused of publishing trivial folktales in the guise of spiritual writings.

. . . The charges are always the same. The academic scholars persecute, claim apostasy, ignorance, dubious parentage, desire for power over the people, danger to public order, self-advertisement and the circulation of spurious, superficial, or irresponsible literature. But in spite of these accusations, in spite of persecution often followed by judicial murder, the Sufi teachers subsequently became major spiritual authorities to the Islamic world. Most of these Sufis were literary men, and all were marked by their inability to accept the dogmas of their current "establishments." Once safely dead, they could be unofficially canonised, but during their lifetimes many suffered grievously.

But perhaps this treatment was not surprising: people persecute or ignore what they do not understand. And there was something particularly provoking about the Sufis. What, for instance, could a medieval theologian make of a man who called himself a mystic, was interested in [humanity's] evolution to a higher level, was associated with scientific work?

it is against this sort of historical background that it can be useful to view Sufi literature, which exists on many levels, from simple entertainment to truths that "lie under the poet's tongue." Codes and the cryptic had their practical, as well as their spiritual uses.

. . . Sufism believes itself to be the substance of that current which can develop [a person] to a higher state in [his/her] evolution. It is not contemptuous of the world. "Be in the world, but not of it," is the aim.

But the inability to believe in the combination of the mystic and the practical is not only of our time.

Roger Bacon, the Franciscan monk, lectured at Oxford from Sufi books in the thirteenth century: it was for his recommendation of Sufi practices that he got into trouble with his religious authorities. Lully of Majorca praised Sufi methodologies, was "a devotee of Arabian mysticism" (Professor E, W. F. Tomlin). Today he finds a place in scientific literature as the inventor of a digital computer. Rumi, poet and mystic, stressed a theory of evolution eight hundred years before Darwin. Shabistari, a thirteenth-century Persian Sufi, writes of the mystic way while emphasising the unbelievable power which could be released from the atom. Al Ghazali wrote of the collective unconscious in relation to medical and psychological techniques. Hujwiri of India, at the time of the Norman Conquest of England, was writing (in a book about Sufi saints) that time and space are identical. Jar Sadiq and Jabir (Geber), the fathers of Western chemistry, were Sufis. Baba Farid had commercial interests and Rumi had to defend him for it – as probably would have to be done today.

For claiming that human enlightenment must be achieved by working with the material world, innumerable Sufis were isolated from potential well-wishers, because of the inculcated thought that they must be superficial if they lived ordinary lives and were concerned with the practical welfare of [humanity]. It is to be hoped that this ancient bias will not be strong enough to keep people's minds closed against what Sufism is offering now.


See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
My Travels with Doris
The Sufi Way
In the Garden of Spirituality – Doris Lessing
Sufism: The Call to Awaken
Doris Lessing Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature
Doris Lessing and the Challenge to Go Beyond Ideological Slogans
As the Last Walls Dissolve . . . Everything is Possible
Clarity, Hope, and Courage
Remembering Doris Lessing, 1919-2013


Sunday, November 16, 2014

Interiors








Images: Michael J. Bayly.

Friday, November 14, 2014

Quote of the Day


While I certainly understand the anger that some people feel toward church leaders who have been so virulently anti-LGBT, lately my dominant feeling towards these prelates has been sadness. In not being able to allow themselves to simply learn about LGBT people, they are missing out on some of the holiest and most positive acts of faith, liberation, and love in the world today. It is sad that they are missing the joy of this most Christian party.

– Francis DeBernardo
Excerpted from "Making Compassion and Kindness
Our Response to Anti-LGBT Faith Leaders
"
Bondings 2.0
November 11, 2014




For more of the compassionate wisdom of Francis DeBernardo, see the previous Wild Reed posts:
"The Church is Better Because of the Presence of LGBT People"
LGBT Catholics Respond to Synod 2014's Final Report
Three Excellent Responses to Cardinal Dolan's Remarks on "the Church" Being "Out-Marketed" on the Issue of Marriage Equality
Progressive Catholic Perspectives on Cardinal O'Brien's Admission of Sexual Impropriety
The Raising of Lazarus and the Gay Experience of Coming Out
Quote of the Day – October 31, 2014
Quote of the Day – April 27, 2014
Quote of the Day – June 26, 2013

See also:
An Inspiring Evening of Conversation and Camaraderie
Acknowledging, Celebrating, and Learning from Marriage Equality's "Triumphs of Faith"

Image: Kristen Solberg.


Wednesday, November 12, 2014

The Art of Being Kind


So many gods, so many creeds;
so many paths that wind and wind,
while just the art of being kind
is all the sad world needs.

Ella Wheeler Wilcox
Excerpted from "The World's Need" (1896)


See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
In Search of a Global Ethic
It Happens All the Time in Heaven
Letting Them Sit By Me
Let's Also Honor the "Expendables"
A God With Whom It is Possible to Connect
Beatrice Marovich on Divinity and Animality in Life of Pi
I Knew It!

Image: A police officer gives water to a cow, injured after being hit by a car. (Photographer unknown)


Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Something to Think About . . .



Related Off-site Links:
On This Eleventh Day – Camillo Mac Bica (Truth Out, November 11, 2014).
Veterans for Peace Plan Armistice Day Events in Cities Across the U.S. and in the U.K.Common Dreams (November 11, 2014).
This Veterans Day, Work for Peace – Margaret Benefiel (Sojourners, November 10, 2014).
100 Years After World War One Began, Europe Remembers Its End – Alan Cowell (The New York Times, November 11, 2014).
On Armistice Day in U.K., a Sea of Red Poppies Honors the Fallen – Krishnadev Calamur (NPR News, November 11, 2014).
Armistice Day: Final Tower Poppy Laid as U.K. Honours Fallen – Peter Hunt (BBC News, November 11, 2014).
The History of the Remembrance Poppy – Chris McNab (The Independent, November 10, 2014).
Mother of Iraq Veteran Who Committed Suicide: "Honor the Dead, Heal the Wounded, Stop the Wars"Democracy Now! (May 28, 2012).
Not All Veterans Are Heroes – Jarrod S. Chlapowski (The Huffington Post, November 11, 2014).
Iraq War Veteran, Outspoken War Critic Tomas Young Dead at 34 – Andrea Germanos (Common Dreams, November 11, 2014).
Rest in Peace Tomas Young: He Bore All This Upon His Body – Abby Zimet (Common Dreams, November 11, 2014).
On Eve of Veterans Day, a Former Soldier Speaks Out on Hidden Costs of War from PTSD to SuicideDemocracy Now! (November 10, 2014).
Modern War: A True Global Health Emergency – Claudia Lefko (Common Dreams, November 10, 2014).
The Truth About the Wars – Daniel P. Bolger (The New York Times, November 10, 2014).
"He Wasn't a Superhero But He Was a Hero"A Prince Named Valiant (February 21, 2011).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
All On A Beautiful Morning
Commemorating My Grandfather, Aub Bayly, and the Loss of AHS Centaur
Remembering Wilfred Owen
Doris Lessing on the Challenge to Go Beyond Ideological Slogans
Walking for Peace, Witnessing Against War
The Christmas Truce of 1914
The Tenth Anniversary of the U.S. Invasion of Iraq
Journeying Into the Truth . . . Valiantly, of Course!

Image: Gary Gianni. Text: Mark Schultz. Source: Taken from page 3543 of the Prince Valiant adventure strip, January 2, 2005.


Monday, November 10, 2014

Winter's Return








Related Off-site Links:
Why, Hello Winter – Katie Kather (Pioneer Press, November 10, 2014).
Minnesotans Brace for First Big SnowstormStar Tribune (November 10, 2014).
Slow Afternoon Commute Amid Continuing Snowfall; 6” in Northwest Metro – Paul Walsh and Tim Harlow (Star Tribune, November 10, 2014).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
First Snowfall
Just in Time for Winter
Winter Garden
Northwoods
Winter Storm
Out and About – Winter 2013-2014

Images: Michael J. Bayly.


Saturday, November 08, 2014

Tony Flannery in Minneapolis


We’re at a moment in time when reform-minded Catholics must let their voices be heard.

This was one of a number of messages that both inspired and challenged the 300+ Catholics who gathered at St. Frances Cabrini Catholic Church in Minneapolis on the evening of Wednesday, November 5, 2014. It was a message delivered by Irish priest Tony Flannery.

Minneapolis was the tenth stop on Flannery’s 18-city speaking tour of the U.S., and was significant as it will be the only time he speaks on official Catholic Church property. This is because bishops throughout the country have banned the 68-year-old Redemptorist priest from church premises, or, perhaps more accurately, have warned parishes against hosting him. Flannery’s tour is sponsored by the Catholic Tipping Point Coalition, which offers the following explanation on its website for the hierarchy’s inhospitable attitude and actions.

Fr. Tony has been ordered to remain silent and forbidden to minister as a priest because of his refusal to sign a document that violates his conscience: namely that women cannot be priests and that he accepts all Church stances on contraception, homosexuality, and refusal of the sacraments to people in second relationships. After a year during which he attempted to come to some accommodation with the Vatican without success, he has decided to take a public stance on the need for reform in the Church. . . . Rather than remain silent, Fr. Tony and all people of conscience are ready to dialogue.


In Minneapolis, Flannery’s talk and the dialogue it facilitated took place on official church property due to St. Frances Cabrini pastor Mike Tegeder's decision to defy a directive from Archbishop Nienstedt. (Tegeder has a long history of criticizing and defying the archbishop. See, for example, here, here, here, and here.)

In response to Nienstedt's concerns about Flannery's presence on Catholic property, Tegeder had the following message posted on the podium.

Tonight's speaker, Tony Flannery, is not to be perceived in any way as being sponsored by the Catholic Church. This announcement comes from Archbishop John C. Nienstedt, Chief Catechist of the Archdiocese of St. Paul & Minneapolis.


Of course, the first part of this statement is only true if one reduces "the Catholic Church" to its clerical leadership. Large segments of the local church, representative of the church as the people of God, clearly have no problem with supporting, welcoming, and, yes, sponsoring, a speaker like Tony Flannery.


Implementing Vatican II

Flannery first came to the attention of many outside his native Galway when, in response to the Irish bishops' “total lack of leadership” in dealing with the clergy sex abuse scandal, he co-founded in the Association of Catholic Priests in 2009.

The association works toward the “full implementation of the vision and teaching of the Second Vatican Council,” with special emphasis on the primacy of the individual conscience, the status and active participation of all the baptized, and the task of establishing a Church where all believers are treated as equal.

Such work corresponds with the activities of Catholic reform groups around the globe, as do the specific objections of the Association of Catholic Priests, which include:

• A redesigning of ministry in the Church in order to incorporate the gifts, wisdom, and expertise of the entire faith community, male and female.

• A re-structuring of the governing system of the Church, basing it on service rather than on power, and encouraging at every level a culture of consultation and transparency, particularly in the appointment of Church leaders.

• A culture in which the local bishop and the priests relate to each other in a spirit of trust, support and generosity.

• A re-evaluation of Catholic sexual teaching and practice that recognizes the profound mystery of human sexuality and the experience and wisdom of God’s people.

• Promotion of peace, justice and the protection of God’s creation locally, nationally and globally.

• Recognition that Church and State are separate and that while the Church must preach the message of the Gospel and try to live it authentically, the State has the task of enacting laws for all its citizens.

• Liturgical celebrations that use rituals and language that are easily understood, inclusive and accessible to all.


According to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Flannery’s (and by extension the Association of Catholic Priests’) views on ordination, contraception, and homosexuality could be construed as "heresy" under church law. During his talk in Minneapolis on November 5, Flannery noted that the Vatican had been particularly alarmed by two views he had expressed in his writings for the Association: that the priesthood as we have it now is not of the mind of Jesus, and that the hierarchical, monarchical structure of the church as it exists today is not what Jesus intended. As a result of these statements, Flannery has been threatened with "canonical penalties," including excommunication, if he does not change his views.

Yet Flannery has no intention of backing down, noting that “the Vatican hasn’t got the Holy Spirit in its pocket.” To those who insist that he must submit in total obedience to the Magisterium, the legitimate teaching authority of the church, Flannery counters by stating that “any authority that tramples on the dignity and basic human rights of its members has long lost claims to legitimacy.”

In his recent book, A Question of Conscience, Flannery recounts his treatment by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.


Two central issues

Flannery believes that as Catholics we are living through extraordinary times with the papacy of Francis. In 100 years time, he says, historians will be writing volumes on this pivotal moment in the history of the church. The bulk of Flannery's November 5 talk was focused on what he identifies as two central issues facing the church at this important time.

The first of these issues is the Magisterium, the teaching authority of the church. Flannery says that currently there is a conflict between two notions of the Magisterium – a narrow notion and a broad one. The narrow notion sees the Magisterium as being composed solely of the bishops (including the pope as Bishop of Rome). The broader version recognizes that the church’s teaching authority depends on recognition of and dialogue among three groups: the bishops, Catholic theologians, and the collective wisdom of the Catholic people (the sensus fidelium).

Flannery contends that Pope Francis is doing the best he can to move the church from the narrow view of teaching authority to the broader view. Francis, says Flannery, wants to hear the voice of the sensus fidelium, and to embed in the structures of the church the broader view of the Magisterium.

Flannery was quick to point out that he’s not an academic, yet his grasp on theology, says Eugene Cullen Kennedy of Chicago’s Loyola University, is better than those in the hierarchy who have attempted to silence him.

Flannery’s condemnation by the Vatican, writes Kennedy in his January 25, 2013 National Catholic Reporter column, should be “recognized as a harbinger of the kind of problem that sure-of-their-infallibility Vatican authorities will encounter in their relationships with the rising generation of theological scholars, most of whom are laymen and women who will not accept condemnations such as that now imposed on Father Flannery.”

Continues Kennedy:

Even well-educated Catholics know as much or more theology than these veiled Roman enforcers. That also goes for the American bishops, who are wonderful men in general but who are unprepared for theological conversations with their people. One of the reasons the bishops have difficulty in communicating effectively with ordinary Catholics arises from their discomfort and/or inability to discuss theological issues with them. . . . Flannery's condemnation is an augury of the deepening estrangement that will take place if the Vatican does not respect the growing theological understanding of its members. The bishops are sincere in wanting to establish better channels of communication with their people. The best thing they can do to achieve that is to master the language of modern theological and scriptural studies that so many Catholics understand better than they do right now.


In his 2013 column, Kennedy also examines two of the issues that Flannery “is being forced to sign off on if he wants to continue his work: Christ's having established the church in hierarchical form and the assertion, employed constantly by bishops to legitimate their authority, that they are the direct descendants of the apostles.”

“If anything,” writes Kennedy “Christ called together a college of apostles, and the collegiality to which Vatican II returned is a far better image than the hierarchical form that was adopted from the hierarchical cosmological view of the universe and expressed in secular kingdoms, including the Roman Empire, whose provinces and proconsuls provided the model for laying out the governance of the church.”

In should be noted that Kennedy highlights an interesting discrepancy in the rhetoric of those who unquestioningly assert that the current structure of church governance is somehow ordained by God and has thus always been. The Vatican’s doctrinal chief Cardinal Gerhard Müller, for example, recently declared that Pope Francis’ Synod on the Family, which for Flannery is a prime example of the pope’s efforts to move the church from a narrow understanding of authority to a broader one, is evidence that the bishops are being “blinded by secularism.” Yet as many Catholics now recognize, the feudal and monarchical structure of the church is itself based on a secular structure from a specific historical era. If the church could adopt an organizing and leadership structure from secular society at one point in its history, why can it not adopt another, namely democracy, from a more current time? And as Robert McClory has compellingly documented, modern democracy actually is more aligned with the democratic impulse and egalitarian spirit of the early Christian church than the Vatican’s model of leadership, fashioned as it is around Roman imperial power of the fifth century.

Decision-making in the church was the second central issue highlighted by Flannery in his November 5 talk in Minneapolis. As with the issue of authority, two understandings of decision-making are currently in conflict – decision-making through authoritarian, top-down edicts vs. decision-making through discernment by the whole community through a process that honors conscience.

Flannery acknowledges that decision-making through discernment can initially cause confusion. But he is adamant that, over time, truth is discerned, “the Spirit’s voice heard.”


“Not a time for reform people to sit back”

Despite his obvious affinity for the group he co-founded, Flannery acknowledges that with the steady decline in the number of priests the true hope for future reform of the church lies with lay reform movements and groups, and with the growing number of intentional Eucharistic communities.

Flannery said he is impressed by the number and vitality of Catholic reform groups in the U.S., but cautioned that, despite the hopeful signs from Francis’ papacy, it is “not a time for reform people to sit back.” We need to do everything we can to ensure our vision of church is heard at the highest levels of church leadership. “Bishops should not only hear from conservative Catholics,” Flannery said, especially in over the next year in the lead-up to Synod on the Family 2015.

One way local Catholics are making their voices heard is through a process being facilitated by the Catholic Coalition for Church Reform (CCCR). Through this process local members of the clergy are being nominated for the next archbishop of St. Paul-Minneapolis. CCCR leadership notes that the lay people of Chicago spoke out about the kind of leadership they needed and that many believe they were heard, as evidenced by the recent appointment of the moderate Blase Cupich.

After voting concludes on November 15, CCCR will announce the top three names in the polling. Local Catholics will then be encouraged to write to the U.S. papal nuncio, Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò, to let him know their thoughts about the kind of leadership needed in the St. Paul/Minneapolis Archdiocese. The goal is that when next there’s an opening for bishop/archbishop in the archdiocese, Archbishop Viganò will not only know that lay Catholics here are paying attention, but will also be aware of the names of men that Catholics have confidence in. (Note: In order to be eligible to vote in CCCR’s Bishop Selection Campaign, registration with the group’s Lay Catholic Network is necessary. You can register here.)

It is activities like CCCR's Bishop Selection Campaign – proactive and voice-raising – that encourage Tony Flannery and many others. Such activities are time-consuming, unglamorous, and more-often-than-not slow to yield results. Yet they are vital for reform-minded Catholics to engage in and spread the word about.

We truly are at a time when our voices need to be heard!




Recommended Resources for Letting Our Voices Be Heard:
The Lay Network in the Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis – The Catholic Coalition for Church Reform.
Where Do We Go from Here? – Writing to Our Bishops – New Ways Ministry.

Recommended Off-site Links:
"Our Voices Are Growing" – Mary Beth Stein (The Progressive Catholic Voice, October 21, 2014).
Controversial Priest's Visit Exposes Rift in Catholic Church – Jon Tevlin (Star Tribune via The Progressive Catholic Voice, November 4, 2014).
Silenced Irish Priest Tony Flannery Touring U.S. – Dennis Coday (National Catholic Reporter, October 21, 2014).
A Review of Tony Flannery's A Question of Conscience – Dermot Keogh (The Independent, September 15, 2013).
Fr. Flannery's Grasp of Theology Better Than That of His Silencers – Eugene Cullen Kennedy (National Catholic Reporter, January 25, 2013).
Irish Priest Receives Support from Near and Far in His Vatican Struggle – Francis DeBernardo (Bondings 2.0, January 23, 2013).
Vatican's Demand for Silence is Too High a Price – Tony Flannery (The Irish Times, January 21, 2013).
Dissident Irish Priest Fears Excommunication Over Views on Women Priests – Patrick Counihan (IrishCentral.com, January 21, 2013).
Irish Redemptorist Father Tony Flannery Gets the Ray Bourgeios Treatment from the CDF – Colleen Kochivar-Baker (Enlightened Catholicism, January 20, 2013).
Priest Is Planning to Defy the Vatican’s Orders to Stay Quiet – Douglas Dalby (The New York Times, January 19, 2013).
Creating a Liberating Church – Mary Radford Rurther (The Progressive Catholic Voice, July 15, 2010).
Let Our Voices Be Heard – Mary Beth Stein (The Progressive Catholic Voice, April 26, 2010).

See also the previous Wild Reed posts:
Pope Francis' Understanding of Catholicism: An Orchestra in Which All Can Play!
Reflections on the Primacy of Conscience
The Question of an “Informed” Catholic Conscience
"Conscience is the Highest Norm"
Paul Lakeland in Minneapolis
Catholicism's Future is "Up to the Laity"
The Vision of Vatican II
Reading the Documents of Vatican II (Part 1)
Reading the Documents of Vatican II (Part 2)
Reading the Documents of Vatican II (Part 3)
A Catholic Understanding of Faithful Dissent (Part 1)
A Catholic Understanding of Faithful Dissent (Part 2)
A Head and Heart Response to the Catholic Hierarchy's Opposition to Marriage Equality
Beyond the Hierarchy: The Blossoming of Liberating Catholic Insights on Sexuality

Images: Michael J. Bayly.